Lila Rajiva likes to disinform Americans about everything from stock market collapse - she says they were 'naked shorted' a term made up by Agora Inc.'s James Dale Davidson to distract from his illegal pump and dump of penny stocks that eventually began to be used by the criminals in control of the U.S.SEC itself who Agora Inc and James Dale Davidson control from their NTU or National Taxpayers Ubion office in Alexandria,Virginia,just a short distance fom the main SEC office also located in Alexandria.
What's funny both ha ha and peculiar about Lila Rajiva's attack on Jennifer Lake in 2010 is the fact that it much had to do with whether or not the Rothschild finanancial crime family of the UK, whose hidden and unaccounted for wealth virtually created Israel aside from Hitler and the Nazis 'transfer agreement' with white European Jewish Zionists that used German people's tax money to pay for German Jewish immigration and resettlement expenses pre WWII, was the real ownwer or major controller of the CIA connected Agora Inc of Baltimore that Lila Rajiva has worked for and prostituted herself to.In fact it was mainly to defend the criminals of Agora Inc such as Porter Stansberry whose employee Rey Rivera died from a mysterious fall from Belvedere Hotel in 2006 when the video cameras were convenietly not working and his many penny stock frauds including a fraudulent internet and mail fraud operation that Stansberry had attached Rivera's name to that was the real reason behind the Agora Inc hack writer Lila Rajiva's attacks in the first place.
However now two years after her insane attacks she is noww blogging that the whole idea that there might be a Rothschild connection to Agora Inc is her idea - AS USUAL !
Well Lila dearest if you still haven't caught on or your masters wish to to play dumb,which you do so well , the Israelis - Menachem Atzmon,Ezra Harel and other Shin Bet scum who 'guarded Logan Airport Boston on 9/11/01 - were also 'coincidentally' backed by the European Rothschild crime family which is why they still control Schiphol Airport in Amstserdam.And like so many 'securities' promoted by Agora Inc., the ICTS International was and is a stock fraud besides being a front for those who allowed 9/11 to happen or directly contributed to it happening.
In fact they allowed the Islamic Nigerian 'crotch bomber' to board flight 253 from Amsterdam to Detroit on Christmas 2009 - HOO HOO HOO.And according to witnesses at the airport including a Detroit attorney,it appeared India's own RAW agents were there and involvewdas well.But we KNOW trhe Israelis of ICTS International facilitated his boarding with the so-called 'crotch bomb'..,...
March 15, 2010
Ms. Rajiva, my rep
On March 1st, author/blogger Lila Rajiva, http://mindbodypolitic.com, posted a critical piece on a couple-or-three paragraphs I’d written about Baltimore publisher Agora Inc. Ms R. seems to have hung on every word, maximizing her “hit” ratio with verbal ammunition, although she does not give her readers an actual link or title citation to my article that she quotes, as one might expect a responsible journalist would do. To make up for her shortfall, the article in question is “The Debt-For-Nature Scheme” and was not designed as a hit-piece on Agora Inc. The Agora paragraphs are brief and general within the context of Debt-For-Nature. http://jenniferlake.wordpress.com/2009/10/10/the-debt-for-nature-scheme/
Who is Lila Rajiva? She is Agora Inc. founder Bill Bonner’s co-author of “Mobs, Messiahs and Markets”. She has a Wikipedia biography http://mindbodypolitic.com/about/ listed on her ‘about’ page (here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lila_Rajiva ) A native of India (one assumes from the bio), Rajiva did doctoral work in the US and resides in Baltimore (and Argentina as well?), and has authored 2 books: (quoting wiki) ”The first book examines the place of Iraqi prisoner torture in U.S. culture and politics and is a study of propaganda; the second book details mass delusions and explains why they continually arise.”
I wonder why Ms. Rajiva has even bothered to critique me, small fish that I am. By taking the Agora material out of context and supposing me a ‘rookie’, is she making sport of a ‘soft’ target? or did she perceive an opportunity to weave ‘spin’ according to her credentials as a somewhat-authority in “propaganda” and “delusion”? I have no doubt that my regular readers have an interest in unwinding the ‘spin’ and getting down to fundamentals about real world problems and their causes. I also don’t doubt that Ms. Rajiva has similar interests, if she could just figure out which side of the fence she’s on, but that’s purely my wish. Maybe she knows exactly her position. As it stands, she straddles fact and fiction and moves the fence when it suits her.
In answer to Rajiva’s March 1 article (with update, 3/06/2010), http://mindbodypolitic.com/2010/03/01/more-agora/ the following is my reply:
Rajiva claims “while googling, I stumbled on some weird material by a blogger Jennifer Lake, who seems to have gotten some facts mixed up about libertarian newsletter publisher, Agora Inc. [I've since had time to read through her archives and many of her entries are overtly anti-semitic]“
The first thing LR wants to tell you before launching her critique is “weird” and “overtly anti-semitic”. The second hyperlink leads to 3 posts that quote from the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. I’ve referred to the Protocols myself as “hoax or not” they seem to be acted upon in the implementation of official policy. The quotes are supported by demonstration in the body of the blog. Is it “weird”? –ee-yeah! We’ve all heard the maxim ”fact is stranger than fiction” and in the world of advanced technology and medical science, which is a dominant theme in my blog, this is surreal weirdness. The objective existence of the Protocols makes it “fact” but only in demonstration can it be determined if it’s true, and I’ve found the principles of the Protocols underlying much ‘truth’ in the outcome of events. Apparently, as Ms. Rajiva will have it, that makes one an anti-semite.
Anti-semitism is certainly an issue as a ‘weaponized’ charge and confessed “trick” that has been used to generate opposition to legitimate claims, criticisms, and dissent against Israeli or Jewish actions. In Ms. Rajiva’s blog post “Israel-Palestine Problem Exhibits Wound of PTSD”, she writes, “For Jews, the great trauma is, of course, the Holocaust itself, the systematic and ultimately incomprehensible slaughter of one-third of world Jewry“. http://mindbodypolitic.com/2010/03/04/israel-palestine-problem-exhibits-wound-of-ptsd/
Slaughter of one-third? Is that a “fact”? If I question the source and accuracy of her statement, I would be labeled ‘anti-semitic’ and a (worse) ‘Holocaust denier’, however I deny no one the legitimacy of their personal suffering. In fact, I agree with Lila that “they need therapy”. What’s interesting is that this hyperlink is the top of her critique, not related to the content of Agora or the article she is quoting from, which is never cited in the first place.
See this video about using the charge of “anti-semitism” as a “trick” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jUGVPBO9_cA
As for ”some facts mixed up” about Agora: how badly did I do?
“[Lake]“Agora Inc. was established as a publishing company in Washington D.C. in 1979 by its founders; William Bonner, Jim Dale Davidson, Porter Stansberry and Lord William Rees-Moog.
(Lila: I don’t believe Stansberry was involved in founding it…he might not even have been born would have been very young at the time; and it’s Rees-Mogg. Moog is the electronic synthesizer. Also, most people who’ve written on the subject don’t mention Rees-Mogg as a founder, except Lyndon Larouche. Besides Larouche, the person who harps on Rees-Mogg is a minor Internet spammer…”—like I said, in context I was generalizing. Stansberry founded 2 or more later divisions of the various businesses under Agora’s umbrella. That makes him a founder, or ‘partner’ if you prefer, in the expanding establishment. He was not an original incorporator in 1979. If I erred, it was for being too brief and nonspecific but I’ll take a lesson. It was not my intention to belabor the Debt-for-Nature article. Instead, I offered a source link which details the original founders as Bill Bonner and James Dale Davidson. Rees-Mogg was included in my statement precisely because others identify him as a founder, one of whom LR describes as “ a credible left-oriented writer”. Good thing LR caught that “Moog” mix-up so nobody thinks I was referring to a synthesizer! It was probably a typo on my part and I’ve been criticized before for not correcting typos. Consider me ‘slapped’. I only used his name once, so who knows if it was a typo or not– I don’t even know. A lot of what follows this is apologist drivel, which Rajiva couches as “Not to defend Agora, but…” and proceeds to defend Agora. LR confirms rather than refutes more of what I’ve written, such as disreputable stock promotion, government connections, charges of fraud, etc. and writes this about her own efforts at exposing Agora:
“.. I’ve been quite critical of Agora (within the limits of what you can say of a place where you once worked)”…”I posted a detailed criticism of Agora that I later took down to avoid claims of defamation“
We’ll have to take her word for it that such a publication existed and was as damaging as she suggests, though I do not find Ms. Rajiva a credible exposer under the circumstances. As she points out by way of another veiled hyperlink, noted as “other facts” concerning the murder of an Agora employee who may have found out inconvenient truths as his widow believes, knowing or exposing things about Agora could be hazardous. Much safer just to talk about how honest and forthright you’ve attempted to be.
The larger criticism in all this appears to be a “lack of evidence” charge. Since her readers probably don’t know that LR quoted every single word about Agora in the Debt-For-Nature article, and wasn’t simply highlighting the passages of some ‘tell-all’, it stands to reason that there just isn’t very much there. She says she’ll do some homework, but will she post it? Considering the off-putting nature of the “overtly anti-semitic” content on my blog, which begins and ends the article, LR had already censored herself with ”confirming my decision not to link the material” that was otherwise supportive (of something at variance with the sanitized Agora, one gathers?)…and so, in all, she has demonstrated the limits of her offering as just another disingenuous propagandist willing to protect and apologize for criminals.
George Soros: Front For N. M. Rothschild
George Soros is a front, allegedly, for the extraordinarily powerful Rothschild banking family and its British circle (Club of Isles), which occupy the apex of the New World Order of transnational corporations and finance.The NWO has its right wing and its left, but, as someone has written, it takes two wings for this bird to fly.
Soros’ story has multiple ties to the dirty intersection of drugs, arms-trading and economic warfare. It links to figures high in the British establishment, like Margaret Thatcher and James Goldsmith; to the American establishment in the form of Henry Kissinger; to shady deal makers like Marc Rich, Rafi Eytan, and Shaul Eisenberg; to crony capitalist ideologues like Jeffrey Sachs; to corrupt bureaucrats like Larry Summers and Stanley Fish; and to criminal enterprises like the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI).
It’s a story of ruined economies, devastated populations, plundered treasuries, and black secrets.
Part I can (and should) be read here.
- [Part II of a long and very detailed description of the financial networks of George Soros, by Executive Intelligence Review writer Bill Engdahl, well-known anti-NWO activist]“But what has never been identified in a single major Western press investigation, was that the Rothschild group was at the heart of the vast illegal web of BCCI. The key figure was Dr. Alfred Hartmann, the managing director of the BCCI Swiss subsidiary, Banque de Commerce et de Placement SA; at the same time, he ran the Zurich Rothschild Bank AG,and sat in London as a member of the board of N.M. Rothschild and Sons, Hartmann was also a business partner of Helmut Raiser, friend of de Picciotto,and linked to Nordex.Hartmann was also chairman of the Swiss affiliate of the Italian BNL bank, which was implicated in the Bush administration illegal transfers to Iraq prior to the 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. The Atlanta branch of BNL, with the knowledge of George Bush when he was vice president, conduited funds to Helmut Raiser’s Zug, Switzerland company, Consen, for development of theCondor II missile program by Iraq, Egypt, and Argentina, during the Iran-Iraq War. Hartmann was vice-chairman of another secretive private Geneva bank, the Bank of NY-Inter-Maritime Bank, a bank whose chairman, Bruce Rappaport,was one of the illegal financial conduits for Col. Oliver North’s Contra drugs-for-weapons network during the late 1980. North also used the BCCI as one of his preferred banks to hide his illegal funds.Rich, Reichmann, and Soros’s Israeli linksAccording to reports of former U.S. State Department intelligence officers familiar with the Soros case, Soros’s Quantum Fund amassed a war chest of well over $10 billion, with the help of a powerful group of “silent” investors who let Soros deploy the capital to demolish European monetary stability in September 1992.Among Soros’s silent investors, these sources say, are the fugitive metals and oil trader Marc Rich, based in Zug, Switzerland; and Shaul Eisenberg, a decades-long member of Israeli Mossad intelligence, who functions as a major arms merchant throughout Asia and the Near East. Eisenberg was recently banned from doing business in Uzbekistan, where he had been accused by the government of massive fraud and corruption. A third Soros partner is Israel’s“Dirty Rafi” Eytan, who served in London previously as Mossad liaison to British intelligence.Rich was one of the most active western traders in oil, aluminum, and other commodities in the Soviet Union and Russia between 1989 and 1993. This, not coincidentally, is just the period when Grigori Luchansky’s Nordex Groupbecame a multibillion-dollar company selling Russian oil, aluminum, and other commodities.Canadian real estate entrepreneur Paul Reichmann, formerly of Olympia and York notoriety, a Hungarian-born Jew like Soros, is a business partner in Soros’s Quantum Realty, a $525-million real estate investment fund.The Reichmann tie links Soros as well with Henry Kissinger and former Tory Foreign Minister Lord Carrington (who is also a member of Kissinger Associates, Inc. of New York). Reichmann sits with both Kissinger and Carrington on the board of the influential British-Canadian publishing group,Hollinger, Inc. Hollinger owns a large number of newspapers in Canada and the United States, the London Daily Telegraph, and the largest English-language daily in Israel, the Jerusalem Post. Hollinger has been attacking President Clinton and the Middle East peace process ever since Clinton’s election in November 1992.Soros and geopoliticsSoros is little more than one of several significant vehicles for economic and financial warfare by the Club of the Isles faction. Because his affiliations to these interests have not previously been spotlighted, he serves extremely useful functions for the oligarchy, as in 1992 and 1993, when he launched his attack on the European Rate Mechanism.Although Soros’s speculation played a role in finally taking the British pound out of the ERM currency group entirely, it would be a mistake to view that action as “anti-British.” Soros went for the first time to London, where he studied under Karl Popper and Friedrich von Hayek at the London School of Economics.Soros’s business ties to Sir James Goldsmith and Lord Rothschild place him in the inner circles of the Thatcher wing of the British establishment. By helping the “anti-Europe” Thatcherites pull Britain out of the ERM in September 1992 (and making more than $1 billion in the process at British taxpayer expense), Soros helped the long-term goal of the Thatcherites in weakening continental Europe’s economic stability. Since 1904 , it has been British geopolitical strategy to prevent by all means any successful economic linkage between western continental European economies, especially that of Germany, with Russia and the countries of eastern Europe.Soros’s personal outlook is consonant with that of the Thatcher wing of the Tory Party, those who three years ago launched the “Germany, the Fourth Reich”hate campaign against unified Germany, comparing Chancellor Helmut Kohl with Adolf Hitler. Soros is personally extremely anti-German. In his 191 autobiography, Underwriting Democracy, Soros warned that a reunited Germany would “upset the balance of Europe …. It is easy to see how the interwar scenario could be replayed. A united Germany becomes the strongest economic power and develops Eastern Europe as its Lebensraum … a potent witches’ brew.” Soros’s recent public attacks on the German economy and the deutsche mark are fundamentally motivated by this geopolitical view.Soros is quite close to the circles of George Bush in the U.S. intelligence community and finance. His principal bank custodian, and reputed major lender in the 1992 assault on Europe’s ERM, is Citicorp NA, the nation’s largest bank. Citicorp is more than a lending institution; it is a core part of the American liberal establishment. In 1989, as it became clear that German unification was a real possibility, a senior official at Citicorp, a former adviser to Michael Dukakis’s Presidential campaign, told a European business associate that “German unity will be a disaster for our interests; we must take measures to ensure a sharp D-Mark collapse on the order of 30%, so that she will not have the capability to reconstruct East Germany into the economic engine of a new Europe.”While Soros was calling on world investors to pull down the deutsche mark in 1993, he had been making a strong play in the French media, since late 1992, to portray himself as a “friend of French interests.” Soros is reported to be close to senior figures of the French establishment, the Treasury, and in particular, Bank of France head Jean-Claude Trichet. In effect, Soros is echoing the old Entente Cordiale alliance against Germany, which helped precipitate World War 1.Soros admits that he survived in Nazi Hungary during the war, as a Jew, by adopting what he calls a double personality. “I have lived with a double personality practically all my life,” Soros recently stated. “It started at age fourteen in Hungary, when I assumed a false identity in order to escape persecution as a Jew.” Soros admitted in a radio interview that his father gave him Nazi credentials in Hungary during the war, and he looted wealthy Jewish estates. Further research showed that this operation was probably run by the SS.Soros did not leave the country until two years after the war. Though he and his friends in the media are quick to attack any policy opponent of Soros, especially in eastern Europe, as being “anti-Semitic,” Soros’s Jewish identity apparently has only utilitarian value for him, rather than providing moral foundations. In short, the young Soros was a cynical, ambitious person, the ideal recruit for the British postwar intelligence network.Soros savages eastern EuropeSoros has established no fewer than 19 “charitable” foundations across eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. He has sponsored “peace” concerts in former Yugoslavia with such performers as Joan Baez. He is helping send young east Europeans to Oxford University. A model citizen, is the image he broadcasts.The reality is something else. Soros has been personally responsible for introducing shock therapy into the emerging economies of eastern Europe since 1989. He has deliberately fostered on fragile new governments in the east the most draconian economic madness, policies which have allowed Soros and his financial predator friends, such as Marc Rich and Shaul Eisenberg, to loot the resources of large parts of eastern Europe at dirt-cheap prices. Here are illustrative case histories of Soros’s eastern “charity”:Poland: In late 1989, Soros organized a secret meeting between the “reform” communist government of Prime Minister Mieczyslaw Rakowski and the leaders of the then-illegal Solidarnosc trade union organization. According to well-informed Polish sources, at that 1989 meeting, Soros unveiled his “plan” forPoland: The communists must let Solidarnosc take over the government, so as to gain the confidence of the population. Then, said Soros, the state must act to bankrupt its own industrial and agricultural enterprises, using astronomical interest rates, withholding state credits, and burdening firms with unpayable debt. Once thie were done, Soros promised that he would encourage his wealthy international business friends to come into Poland, as prospective buyers of the privatized state enterprises. A recent example of this privatization plan is the case of the large steel facility Huta Warsawa. According to steel experts, this modern complex would cost $3-4 billion for a western company to build new. Several months ago, the Polish government agreed to assume the debts of Huta Warsawa, and to sell the debt-free enterprise to a Milan company, Lucchini, for $30 million!.Soros recruited his friend, Harvard University economist Jeffery Sachs, who had previously advised the Bolivian government in economic policy, leading to the takeover of that nation’s economy by the cocaine trade. To further his plan in Poland, Soros set up one of his numerous foundations, the Stefan Batory Foundation, the official sponsor of Sach’s work in Poland in 1989-90.Soros boasts, “I established close personal contact with Walesa’s chief adviser, Bronislaw Geremek. I was also received by [President Gen Wojciech] Jaruzelski, the head of State, to obtain his blessing for my foundation.” He worked closely with the eminence gris of Polish shock therapy, Witold Trzeciakowski, a shadow adviser to Finance Minister Leszek Balcerowicz. Soros also cultivated relations with Balcerowicz, the man who would first impose Sach’s shock therapy on Poland. Soros says when Walesawas elected President, that “largely because of western pressure, Walesa retained Balcerowicz as minister.” Balcerowicz imposed a freeze on wages while industry was to be bankrupted by a cutoff of state credits. Industrial output fell by more than 30% over two years.Soros admits he knew in advance that his shock therapy would cause huge unemployment, closing of factories, and social unrest. For this reason, he insisted that Solidarnosc be brought into the government, to help deal with the unrest. Through the Batory Foundation, Soros coopted key media opinion makers such as Adam Michnik, and through cooperation with the U.S. Embassy in Warsaw, imposed a media censorship favorable to Soros’s shock therapy, and hostile to all critics.Russia and the Community of Independent States (CIS): Soros headed a delegation to Russia, where he had worked together with Raisa Gorbachovasince the late 1980s, to establish the Cultural Initiative Foundation. As with his other “charitable foundations,” this was a tax-free vehicle for Soros and his influential Western friends to enter the top policymaking levels of the country, and for tiny sums of scarce hard currency, buy up important political and intellectual figures. After a false start under Mikhail Gorbachov in 1988-91, Soros shifted to the new Yeltsin circle. It was Soros who introduced Jeffery Sachs and shock therapy into Russia, in late 1991. Soros describes his effort: “I started mobilizing a group of economists to take to the Soviet Union (July 1990). Professor Jeffery Sachs, with whom I had worked in Poland, was ready and eager to participate. He suggested a number of other participants:Romano Prodi from Italy; David Finch, a retired official from the IMF[International Monetary Fund]. I wanted to include Stanley Fischer andJacob Frenkel, heads of research of the World Bank and IMF, respectively; Larry Summers from Harvard and Michael Bruno of the Central Bank of Israel.”Since Jan. 2, 1992, shock therapy has introduced chaos and hyperinflation into Russia. Irreplaceable groups from advanced scientific research institutes have fled in pursuit of jobs in the West. Yegor Gaidar and the Yeltsin government imposed draconian cuts in state spending to industry and agriculture, even though the entire economy was state-owned. A goal of a zero deficit budget within three months was announced. Credit to industry was ended, and enterprises piled up astronomical debts, as inflation of the ruble went out of control.The friends of Soros lost no time in capitalizing on this situation. Marc Rich began buying Russian aluminum at absurdly cheap prices, with his hard currency. Rich then dumped the aluminum onto western industrial markets last year, causing a 30% collapse in the price of the metal, as western industry had no way to compete. There was such an outflow of aluminum last year from Russia, that there were shortages of aluminum for Russian fish canneries. At the same time, Rich reportedly moved in to secure export control over the supply of most West Siberian crude oil to western markets. Rich’s companies have been under investigation for fraud in Russia, according to a report in the Wall Street Journal of May 13, 1993.Another Soros silent partner who has moved in to exploit the chaos in the former Soviet Union, is Shaul Eisenberg. Eisenberg, reportedly with a letter of introduction from then-European Bank chief Jacques Attali, managed to secure an exclusive concession for textiles and other trade in Uzbekistan. When Uzbek officials confirmed defrauding of the government by Eisenberg, his concessions were summarily abrogated. The incident has reportedly caused a major loss for Israeli Mossad strategic interests throughout the Central Asian republics.Soros has extensive influence in Hungary. When nationalist opposition parliamentarian Istvan Csurka tried to protest what was being done to ruin the Hungarian economy, under the policies of Soros and friends, Csurka was labeled an “anti-Semite,” and in June 1993, he was forced out of the governing Democratic Forum, as a result of pressure from Soros-linked circles in Hungary and abroad, including Soros’s close friend, U.S. Rep. Tom Lantos.Lighting the Balkan FuseIn early 1990, in what was then still Yugoslavia, Soros’s intervention with shock therapy, in cooperation with the IMF, helped light the economic fuse that led to the outbreak of war in June 1991. Soros boasted at that time, “Yugoslavia is a particularly interesting case. Even as national rivalries have brought the country to the verge of a breakup, a radical monetary stabilization program, which was introduced on the same date as in Poland—January 1, 1990—–has begun to change the political landscape. The program is very much along the Polish lines, and it had greater initial success. By the middle of the year, people were beginning to think Yugoslav again.”Soros is friends with former Deputy Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger, the former U.S. ambassador to Belgrade and the patron of Serbian Communist leader Slobodan Milosevic. Eagleburger is a past president of Kissinger Associates, on whose board sits Lord Carrington, whose Balkan mediations supported Serbian aggression into Croatia and Bosnia.Today, Soros has established his Foundation centers in Bosnia, Croatia, Slovenia, and a Soros Yugoslavia Foundation in Belgrade, Serbia. In Croatia, he has tried to use his foundation monies to woo influential journalists or to slander opponents of his shock therapy, by labeling them variously “anti-Semitic” or “neo-Nazi.” The head of Soros’s Open Society Fund—Croatia, Prof. Zarko Puhovski, is a man who has reportedly made a recent dramatic conversion from orthodox Marxism to Soros’s radical free market. Only seven years ago, according to one of his former students, as professor of philosophy at the University of Zagreb, Puhovski attacked students trying to articulate a critique of communism, by insisting, “It is unprincipled to criticize Marxism from a liberal standpoint.” His work for the Soros Foundation in Zagreb has promoted an anti-nationalist “global culture,” hiring a network of anti-Croatian journalists to propagandize, in effect, for the Serbian cause.These examples can be elaborated for each of the other 19 locations across eastern Europe where George Soros operates. The political agenda of Soros and this group of financial “globalists” will create the conditions for a new outbreak of war, even world war, if it continues to be tolerated.”Note: In the interests of full disclosure, I should state that I was affiliated for a year and a half to financial publisher Agora Inc. some of whose members have ties to Soros-related entities and figures. I had no connection to any of them and did not know about the ties at the time I was affiliated.